Today we are discuss some basic knowledge of Linux operating system.Linux operating system is very important our professional sector. Linux®is an open-standards UNIX derivative originally developed and released by a Finnish computer science student named Linus Torvalds. The Linux source code was posted publicly on a computing newsgroup, and the code was developed and tested cooperatively all over the world. Because the source code is open, it can be downloaded, modiﬁed, and installed freely. However, many organizations prefer to purchase and implement a Linux distribution, which is a complete Linux implementation, including kernel, shell, applications, utilities, and installation media, that is packaged, distributed, and supported by a software vendor.
NB: Linux is usually pronounced “LINN-ux.” It is a combination of Linus Torvalds’s ﬁrst name (pronounced LEEN-us TOUR-valds in Swedish) and UNIX.
NB: The ofﬁcial symbol of the Linux operating system is “Tux” the penguin, which serves as a mascot for the Linux community and as a Linux logo. For information about the Linux penguin, see www.linux.org/info/logos.html.
Open vs. Proprietary
Open standards are any type of software-development standards that are arrived at cooperatively and are not owned, copyrighted, or maintained by any particular organization or commercial enterprise. Open standards are the opposite of proprietary development.
Linux Release Versions
The ﬁrst version of the Linux kernel that was publicly released was version .02, released in 1991. Linux kernel version 2.6.33 was available as of October 2010. For more information about Linux and its versions, see the Linux home page at www.linux.org.
Popular Linux Distributions
The following table lists some popular Linux distributions.
1) Red Hat®Linux®A popular United States distribution designed to be easy for new users to install and use. Red Hat officially supports Red Hat Enterprise Linux, while the more user-oriented operating system (called Fedora) is community-supported.
2) SuSE®A popular European distribution, now owned by Novell. SuSE is properly pronounced “ZOO-zuh,” but is often pronounced to rhyme with Suzie.
3) Mandriva®Linux®Formerly known as Mandrake, Mandriva is a popular desktop Linux distribution. Its unique features include simpliﬁed administration and an easy-to-use package manager for software installation.
4) Debian® An option-rich free distribution assembled by volunteers that contains many utilities and supports many hardware platforms.
5) Gentoo® A source-code distribution designed for professional developers and computer hobbyists.
6) Ubuntu® A popular community-developed operating system derived from the Debian distribution. Ubuntu works on laptops, desktops, and servers, and has supported variants appropriate for educational, multimedia, or mobile uses.
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