Troubleshooting – LINUX :: Part-5


Red Hat

Problem : How do I list files by size?

A.At your Linux prompt

# Is -1    |   sort  -n  + 4

Problem : How can I check the processes of two or more users?

A.Just use egrep

ps-aux  | egrep ’|’

Problem : How do you splitup a file so that it will fit on floppys?

A.Use split:

# split –b 1400000

To reassemble use cat:

Cat x* >

Problem : How can I find out how much memory I am using?

A.At your Linux prompt type:


Problem : How can I check how much space  I am using on my hard drive(s)?

A.At your Linux prompt type:

# df

Problem : How can I check how much  hard drive space a certain directory is using?

  A.At your Linux prompt type:

#du –s

Problem : How do I disable unnecessary services?

On older Linux releases,services are managed by inetd.To disable inetd services,edit /etc/inetd.conf and comment out thecunwanted services by placing a # at the beginning of each line you wish disabled,and then restart inetd using the following command: kill – Hup ‘pid of inetd’.

Newer Linux releases have replaced inetd with xinetd,which is slightly different to configure.To dsable an xinetd service,edit the file /etc/xinetd.conf and add the line disable = <service> to the stanza titled “defaults” here is an example of an xinetd configuration with ftp disabled:


                       instances                              =60

                       log_type                               =syslog                                        authpriv

                       log_on_success                =HOST PID

                       log_on_failure                    =HOST

                      disabled                               =ftp


If you are using a separate configuration file for each service,you can also disable the service by specifying so in the service-specific file.keeping with our ftp example,you would edit /etc/xinetd.d/wu-ftpd as follows:

Service ftp


                        disable                                               =yes

                       socket_type                                       =stream

                       wait                                                     =no

                       user                                                     =root

                       server                                                  =      /usr/sbin/in.ftpd

                       server_args                                        =     -1   -a

                       log_on_success                                 + =DURATION USERID

                       log_on_failure                                   + =USERID

                       nice                                                        =10


Once you’ve disabled the desired service,don’t forget to restart xinetd.

Ther are many unnecessary non-networking or non-inetd services,such as Ipd and linux conf.These can be disabled by reconfiguring Linux’s startup scripts.Each distribution differs sligh tly in the implementation of its startup scripts,but most distributions have a simple utility for modifying the startup scripts,such as ‘ntsysv’ in Redhat.

# ntsysv


Hardware related

                                                        ————————- Thanks everyone


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