51. Compare Error Detection and Error Correction:
The correction of errors is more difficult than the detection. In error detection, checks only any error has occurred. In error correction, the exact number of bits that are corrupted and location in the messag e are known. The number of the errors and the size of the message are important factors.
52. What is Forward Error Correction?
Forward error correction is the process in which the receiver tries to guess the message by using redundant bits.
53. Define Retransmission?
Retransmission is a technique in which the receiver detects the occurrence of an error and asks the sender to resend the message. Resending is repeated until a message arrives that the receiver believes is error-freed.
54. What are Data Words?
In block coding, we divide our message into blocks, each of k bits, called datawords. The block coding process is one-to-one. The same dataword is always encoded as the same codeword.
55. What are Code Words?
“r” redundant bits are added to each block to make the length n = k + r. The resulting n-bit blocks are called codewords. 2n– 2k codewords that are not used. These codewords are invalid or illegal.
56. What is a Linear Block Code?
A linear block code is a code in which the exclusive OR (addition modulo-2) of two valid codewords creates another valid codeword.
57. What are Cyclic Codes?
Cyclic codes are special linear block codes with one extra property. In a cyclic code, if a codeword is cyclically shifted (rotated), the result is another codeword.
58. Define Encoder?
A device or program that uses predefined algorithms to encode, or compress audio or video data for storage or transmission use. A circuit that is used to convert between digital video and analog video.
59. Define Decoder?
A device or program that translates encoded data into its original format (e.g. it decodes the data). The term is often used in reference to MPEG-2 video and sound data, which must be decoded before it is output.
60. What is Framing?
Framing in the data link layer separates a message from one source to a destination, or from other messages to other destinations, by adding a sender address and a destination address. The destination address defines where the packet has to go and the sender address helps the recipient acknowledge the receipt.
61. What is Fixed Size Framing?
In fixed-size framing, there is no need for defining the boundaries of the frames. The size itself can be used as a delimiter.
62. Define Character Stuffing?
In byte stuffing (or character stuffing), a special byte is added to the data section of the frame when there is a character with the same pattern as the flag. The data section is stuffed with an extra byte. This byte is usually called the escape character (ESC), which has a predefined bit pattern. Whenever the receiver encounters the ESC character, it removes it from the data section and treats the next character as data, not a delimiting flag.
63. What is Bit Stuffing?
Bit stuffing is the process of adding one extra 0 whenever five consecutive Is follow a 0 in the data, so that the receiver does not mistake the pattern 0111110 for a flag.
64. What is Flow Control?
Flow control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount of data that the sender can send before waiting for acknowledgment.
65. What is Error Control ?
Error control is both error detection and error correction. It allows the receiver to inform the sender of any frames lost or damaged in transmission and coordinates the retransmission of those frames by the sender. In the data link layer, the term error control refers primarily to methods of error detection and retransmission.
66. What Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ)?
Error control is both error detection and error correction. It allows the receiver to inform the sender of any frames lost or damaged in transmission and coordinates the retransmission of those frames by the sender. In the data link layer, the term error control refers primarily to methods of error detection and retransmission. Error control in the data link layer is often implemented simply: Any time an error is detected in an exchange, specified frames are retransmitted. This process is called automatic repeat request (ARQ).
67. What is Stop-and-Wait Protocol?
In Stop and wait protocol, sender sends one frame, waits until it receives confirmation from the receiver (okay to go ahead), and then sends the next frame.
68. What is Stop-and-Wait Automatic Repeat Request?
Error correction in Stop-and-Wait ARQ is done by keeping a copy of the sent frame and retransmitting of the frame when the timer expires.
69. What is usage of Sequence Number in Relaible Transmission?
The protocol specifies that frames need to be numbered. This is done by using sequence numbers. A field is added to the data frame to hold the sequence number of that frame. Since we want to minimize the frame size, the smallest range that provides unambiguous communication. The sequence numbers can wrap around.
70. What is Pipelining ?
In networking and in other areas, a task is often begun before the previous task has ended. This is known as pipelining.
71. What is Sliding Window?
The sliding window is an abstract concept that defines the range of sequence numbers that is the concern of the sender and receiver. In other words, he sender and receiver need to deal with only part of the possible sequence numbers.
72. What is Piggy Backing?
A technique called piggybacking is used to improve the efficiency of the bidirectional protocols. When a frame is carrying data from A to B, it can also carry control information about arrived (or lost) frames from B; when a frame is carrying data from B to A, it can also carry control information about the arrived (or lost) frames from A.
73. What are the two types of transmission technology available?
(i) Broadcast and (ii) point-to-point
74. What is subnet?
A generic term for section of a large networks usually separated by a bridge or router.
75. Difference between the communication and transmission.
Transmission is a physical movement of information and concern issues like bit polarity, synchronisation, clock etc.Communication means the meaning full exchange of information between two communication media.
76. What are the possible ways of data exchange?
(i) Simplex (ii) Half-duplex (iii) Full-duplex.
77. What is SAP?
Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of network protocol stack.
78. What do you meant by “triple X” in Networks?
The function of PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) is described in a document known as X.3. The standard protocol has been defined between the terminal and the PAD, called X.28; another standard protocol exists between hte PAD and the network, called X.29. Together, these three recommendations are often called “triple X”.
79. What is frame relay, in which layer it comes?
Frame relay is a packet switching technology. It will operate in the data link layer.
80. What is terminal emulation, in which layer it comes?
Telnet is also called as terminal emulation. It belongs to application layer.
81. What is Beaconing?
The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems. The stations on the network notify the other stations on the ring when they are not receiving the transmissions. Beaconing is used in Token ring and FDDI networks.
82. What is redirector?
Redirector is software that intercepts file or prints I/O requests and translates them into network requests. This comes under presentation layer.
83. What is NETBIOS and NETBEUI?
NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a remote computer and it hides the networking hardware from applications.NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol designed by microsoft and IBM for the use on small subnets.
84. What is RAID?
A method for providing fault tolerance by using multiple hard disk drives.
85. What is passive topology?
When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal, they are referred to as passive because they don’t amplify the signal in any way. Example for passive topology -linear bus.
86. What is Brouter?
Hybrid devices that combine the features of both bridges and routers.
87. What is cladding?
A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiber-optic cable.
88. What is point-to-point protocol?
A communications protocol used to connect computers to remote networking services including Internet service providers.
89. How Gateway is different from Routers?
A gateway operates at the upper levels of the OSI model and translates information between two completely different network architectures or data formats.
90. What is attenuation?
The degeneration of a signal over distance on a network cable is called attenuation.
91. What is MAC address?
The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the network architecture. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and is unique.
92. Difference between bit rate and baud rate.
Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second whereas baud rate refers to the number of signal units per second that are required to represent those bits.baud rate = (bit rate / N)where N is no-of-bits represented by each signal shift.
93. What is Bandwidth?
Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. This limited range is called the bandwidth.
94. What are the types of Transmission media?
Signals are usually transmitted over some transmission media that are broadly classified in to two categories.
a.) Guided Media: These are those that provide a conduit from one device to another that include twisted -pair, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. A signal traveling along any of these media is directed and is contained by the physical limits of the medium. Twisted-pair and coaxial cable use metallic that accept and transport signals in the form of electrical current. Optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light.
b.) Unguided Media: This is the wireless media that transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. Signals are broadcast either through air. This is done through radio communication, satellite communication and cellular telephony.
95. What is Project 802?
It is a project started by IEEE to set standards to enable intercommunication between equipment from a variety of manufacturers. It is a way for specifying functions of the physical layer, the data link layer and to some extent the network layer to allow for interconnectivity of major LAN protocols.It consists of the following:
1. 802.1 is an internetworking standard for compatibility of different LANs and MANs across protocols.
2. 802.2 Logical link control (LLC) is the upper sublayer of the data link layer which is non-architecture-specific, that is remains the same for all IEEE-defined LANs.
3. Media access control (MAC) is the lower sublayer of the data link layer that contains some distinct modules each carrying proprietary information specific to the LAN product being used. The modules are Ethernet LAN (802.3), Token ring LAN (802.4), Token bus LAN (802.5).
4. 802.6 is distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) designed to be used in MANs.
96. What is Protocol Data Unit?
The data unit in the LLC level is called the protocol data unit (PDU). The PDU contains of four fields a destination service access point (DSAP), a source service access point (SSAP), a control field and an information field. DSAP, SSAP are addresses used by the LLC to identify the protocol stacks on the receiving and sending machines that are generating and using the data. The control field specifies whether the PDU frame is a information frame (I – frame) or a supervisory frame (S – frame) or a unnumbered frame (U – frame).
97. What are the different type of networking / internetworking devices?
1. Repeater: Also called a regenerator, it is an electronic device that operates only at physical layer. It receives the signal in the network before it becomes weak, regenerates the original bit pattern and puts the refreshed copy back in to the link.
2. Bridges: These operate both in the physical and data link layers of LANs of same type. They divide a larger network in to smaller segments. They contain logic that allow them to keep the traffic for each segment separate and thus are repeaters that relay a frame only the side of the segment containing the intended recipent and control congestion.
3. Routers: They relay packets among multiple interconnected networks (i.e. LANs of different type). They operate in the physical, data link and network layers. They contain software that enable them to determine which of the several possible paths is the best for a particular transmission.
4. Gateways: They relay packets among networks that have different protocols (e.g. between a LAN and a WAN). They accept a packet formatted for one protocol and convert it to a packet formatted for another protocol before forwarding it. They operate in all seven layers of the OSI model.
98. What is ICMP?
ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol, a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender. It uses the echo test / reply to test whether a destination is reachable and responding. It also handles both control and error messages.
99. What are the data units at different layers of the TCP / IP protocol suite?
The data unit created at the application layer is called a message, at the transport layer the data unit created is called either a segment or an user data-gram, at the network layer the data unit created is called the datagram, at the data link layer the datagram is encapsulated in to a frame and finally transmitted as signals along the transmission media.
100. What is difference between ARP and RARP?
The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical address, used by a host or a router to find the physical address of another host on its network by sending a ARP query packet that includes the IP address of the receiver.The reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows only its physical address.